In an extraordinary outburst, the Brazilian told BBC television that the afternoon had been "a good show from the team on how to lose a race."
"I'm terribly upset with the way things went," added the veteran, who led at the first corner but ended up sixth and behind his championship-leading team mate Jenson Button [ Images ] at the finish.
"I did all I had to do. I went first on the first corner and then they made me lose the race," said Barrichello, who had qualified second.
"If it is really what's going on, we're going to end up losing both championships. I feel sorry for myself, the team. To be very honest, I wish I could get on the plane and go home. I don't want to talk to anyone in the team.
"It will be all 'blah blah blah' and I don't want to hear that."
Australian Mark Webber [ Images ], who had started on pole for Red Bull, went on to win despite a drive-through penalty for banging into Barrichello as they charged into the first corner at the start.
Webber made two regular pit stops while Barrichello was on a three-stop strategy, with his second stop also slowed by a fuel rig problem.
The result dropped Barrichello from second in the championship to fourth.
Team principal Ross Brawn [ Images ] said his driver had been speaking in the heat of the moment and before he was fully informed of the facts. He recognised he was frustrated.
"It wasn't a great race for us and we probably tried too hard to come up with compensation for the lack of performance we had," he told reporters.
"His (Barrichello's) radio wasn't great in the race, he was struggling with it so normal briefings we were giving him during the race... he wasn't getting. He didn't really have the full picture of what was going on.
"If we had been quicker we would have won the race. But we were too slow," added Brawn.
"I think when he looks at all the numbers he will realise we were too slow today. There was no capacity to win the race. Mark had a drive-through and was still back in front of us after a few laps.
"Rubens had the 11th fastest time in the race today. You cannot win a race, whatever strategy you have, if your best lap time is the 11th quickest. Those are the facts."
Sunday's outburst was the second this season from Barrichello, who has had to watch Button win six of the first seven races.
In Spain in May, after finishing runner-up to Button, he said he would walk out if he got the slightest sniff of the team favouring the Briton.